The darker the color, the more favorable the climate conditions are for survival. The outlined areas represent approximate current range for each season. More on reading these maps.
This species depends on the seeds of small-coned conifers, like hemlock, larch, and spruce. Like its larger cousin, the Red Crossbill, it also undergoes periodic widespread irruptions. The species may be absent from an area for a decade or more, only to become common one winter. Audubon's climate model projects an 85 percent loss of current summer range, showing a shift further north. Any newly available climate space will have to be colonized by small-coned conifers before the White-winged Crossbill can colonize them.